Appendix – Background to the Voluntary Code of Practice for Social Enterprise
The above discussion paper has been informed by these three sources:
1. Defining Social Enterprise: Scottish Criteria
Criterion 1 – Social Enterprises have social and/or environmental objectives.
As one of its defining characteristics, a social enterprise must be able to demonstrate its social mission. This will be evidenced in its constitutional documents but the production of other (externally verified) evidence is encouraged – to provide transparency of purpose and accountability to stakeholders. Tools and techniques to measure social and environmental impact are becoming more effective and user friendly.
Criterion 2 – Social Enterprises are trading businesses aspiring to financial independence.
This second defining characteristic is demonstrated by an enterprise earning 50% or more of its income from trading. This will be evidenced by the accounts of the business over a reasonable period. A high level of income from the public sector is acceptable in the form of contracts – but not grants. Criterion 2 is intended to mark the boundary between social enterprise and much of the voluntary sector. (Many Voluntary orgs trade over 50% without calling themselves social enterprises).
Criterion 3 – Social Enterprises have an ‘asset lock’ on both trading surplus and residual assets.
Whether or not it’s a charity, a social enterprise re-invests all its distributable profit for the purpose of its social mission. Where the business has shareholding investment (very few in Scotland) no more than 35% of profit may be distributed in dividends (*) In addition, the constitutional documents of a social enterprise must contain a clause to ensure that, on dissolution of the business, all residual assets go to social/environmental purposes. Criterion 3 is intended to mark the boundary between social enterprise and the private sector.
Criterion 4 – A Social Enterprise cannot be the subsidiary of a public sector body.
Whilst a social enterprise can be the trading subsidiary of a charity, it must be constitutionally independent from the governance of any public body. Additional evidence of this would be required from Public Sector externalisations. Criterion 4 is intended to mark the boundary between social enterprise and the public sector.
Criterion 5 – Social Enterprises are driven by values – both in their mission and business practices.
Social enterprises operate in competitive – often fierce – markets but there is an expectation that their dealings will be ethical and that they will offer their people satisfactory wages, terms and conditions. Enterprises of a reasonable size are expected to have clear human relations and environmental policies. Transparency would be achieved through the voluntary adoption in the sector of a maximum ratio between highest and lowest paid – of say 1:5 – investing a culture of equality.
2. UK Government: Definition of Social Enterprise (2002)
‘A social enterprise is a business with primarily social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the community, rather than being driven by the need to maximise profit for shareholders and owners’
3. European Union: Definition of Social Enterprise (2011)
‘Social enterprise’ means an enterprise whose primary objective is to achieve social impact rather than generate profit for owners and stakeholders. It operates in the market through the production of goods and services in an entrepreneurial and innovative way, and uses surpluses mainly to achieve social goals. It is managed in an accountable and transparent way, in particular by involving workers, customers and stakeholders affected by its business activity."